About the Journal

Instructions for Authors

Please see the Florida Entomological Society page on instructions for authors.

About the Florida Entomologist

Welcome to Florida Entomologist, the first long-published, referreed, natural science journal on the Internet. Florida Entomologist is also:

  • the first journal to put its contents on the Internet in PDF format,
  • the first life science journal to have all current and back issues on the Web with free access,
  • the first entomological journal to allow authors to archive supplemental digital material with their articles,
  • the first journal to be freely accessible on BioOne

Florida Entomologist is the official journal of the Florida Entomological Society. Volumes 1-3 were published under the name The Florida Buggist. The Florida Entomological Society still produces the traditionally printed version of Florida Entomologist, but you can also view, search, or print any article published since June 1917 by accessing online files. Web access is made possible by the Society’s electronic publication project begun in 1993 (see below for more details).

We encourage you to also view the online files of the Boletín de Entomología Venezolana and Entomotropica, produced by the Sociedad Venezolana de Entomologia.

FES members who subscribe to the mailing list, FLORIDAENT-L, will receive the table of contents of each issue as it is published. They will also automatically receive the Society’s Newsletter when it is posted each quarter. See Mailing Lists for details.

FES's electronic publication project

Online publication was undertaken by the Florida Entomological Society to further this vision of the future of primary scientific publication:

"Any scientist who is linked to the developing worldwide electronic information network (presently termed the Internet) will be able to view and to print any article in any journal published by a scientific society. Printing from the network will yield hardcopy equal to a photocopy or reprint of the article. The information will be free to the person taking the information from the network (as it is when a person takes information from a library)." [endorsed by the Executive Committee of the Florida Entomological Society, 10 May 1993]

Online publication of Florida Entomologist is a joint project of the Florida Entomological Society and the Florida Center for Library Automation. Since 1994, E. O. Painter Printing Company has used the files that produce the printed version to generate the PDF and other files needed for the electronic version. Electronic publication of Florida Entomologist began 28 Nov 1994, when the September 1994 issue (vol. 77, no. 3) was put online. The June 1994 issue was soon added, and all later issues have been put online shortly after the printed issues were mailed.

All Florida Entomologist articles are posted on the Internet as Portable Document Format (PDF) files, which are accessed with the free Acrobat reader The PDF files can be:

  • viewed at any magnification from 12 to 1600%,
  • searched for any word or character string,
  • copied, in full or in part, to the computer's clipboard and pasted into another application,
  • printed, in full or in part, to produce the equivalent of a reprint or photocopy.

In 1996, the Florida Entomological Society began to investigate ways to put early issues online. Because pages in issues published prior to June 1994 were composed by cut-and-paste rather than electronically, they must be scanned before being converted to PDF files. In 1997, a pilot project to establish the feasibility and cost was completed and two back issues were put online. Early in 1998, the Society raised the funds required to scan and index all back issues. On 27 April 1999, FES's back-issue project (see below) was completed when the Florida Center for Library Automation made PDF files of all articles freely accessible and searchable on the Web.

From 1994 through 2000, all articles in the Florida Entomologist were made freely accessible on the Internet with no increase in author fees. In 2001, because of declining revenues from library subscriptions, an obligatory IFWA (Immediate Free Web Access) fee was imposed. The fee was set at $100 for regular articles and $50 for shorter ones ("scientific notes"), a level that promises to pay all costs of the electronic version of Florida Entomologist and to compensate for lost library subscriptions until at least 2006.

In 2002, the Florida Entomological Society chose to make Florida Entomologist freely accessible on BioOne, an aggregation of electronic versions of more than 60 bioscience journals, to which more than 440 libraries subscribe. Patrons of subscribing libraries can access the full text of articles in all BioOne journals. Others can usually access only the abstracts. On 28 March 2003, Florida Entomologist became the first journal on BioOne to allow open access to the full text of its articles. To participate in BioOne, a publisher must provide files that meet BioOne's SGML specifications, thereby enabling BioOne to produce first-rate HTML versions of the articles. Producing SGML files to BioOne's standards approximately doubled the per-page cost of producing the electronic version of Florida Entomologist, but IFWA fees covered all costs.

FES has continually sought to make online Florida Entomologist articles easier for potential users to find. For example, prior to the time that search-service robots started to index PDF files of articles, FES posted minimally formatted HTML files of all articles to make it possible for the articles to be located through services such as Google or AltaVista. Each such HTML file directed its finders to click on its link to the corresponding PDF file. Today search services index the PDF files of all Florida Entomologist articles published since June 1994. Prior to that time articles were composed by cut and paste rather than electronically. Consequently the PDF files of these older articles are of scanned images of the printed pages rather than character-based. However, in the back-issue project, the images of scanned pages were optically character read with an accuracy of 99.95% permitting indexing of every word and phrase in the full text of the articles. In September 2004, the Florida Center for Library Automation exploited this possibility and made a union index of the full text of all articles published from 1917 to date. Thus those who go to the Florida Entomologist home page on the FCLA server can now search a complete set of articles by author, or word or phrase in the title or full text, or by Boolean combination of any of these.

Another way in which FES has made Florida Entomologist articles easier to find is by posting them with open access on BioOne, in HTML and PDF formats. Those searching the set of bioscience journals on BioOne can find any article published in Florida Entomologist from March 2002 to date, and they can download the full text even if they do not belong to an institution that subscribes to BioOne. During the first six months of 2004, Florida Entomologist articles were downloaded from BioOne in HTML format 29,054 times and in PDF format 2,444 times.

Florida Entomologist authors may add InfoLinks to their articles. An InfoLink is a link to a file of the authors creation. It is clickable from the online table of contents that lists the author's article, and it empowers the author to publish supplementary material (e.g., color illustrations, complete data sets, audio clips) and, in most implementations, to add to and correct the supplementary material. InfoLinks are currently priced at $45.

FES’s Back-Issue Project

In 1996, having succeeded in putting current issues of Florida Entomologist on line from June 1994 forward, FES directed its attention to back issues. The 20,000 pages published from June 1917 to March 1994 had been composed by cut-and-paste rather than electronically. Thus files suitable for posting on the Web would be difficult to make. The Society initiated a pilot project to determine the feasibility of scanning the pages of articles, assembling them in word processing software, and printing the collated bitmapped pages to Portable Document Format (PDF) files. Early tests were successful, and all articles in the two most recent back issues (Mar. 1994 and Dec. 1993) were put on line in Dec. 1996 at a cost of $0.75 per page. Plans were made to solicit donations for putting additional issues on line in the same fashion.

However, early in 1997, FES learned that JSTOR was using a much superior process to put entire back runs of journals on the Web. Not only were the issues scanned, but text was optically character read to an accuracy of 99.95% and components of issues and articles were manually analyzed. This allowed indexes to be made that could be used to locate any word or phrase within all fields and all items, or within specific fields (title, author, etc), or within specified types of item (article, book review, etc.). Furthermore, JSTOR was doing this at a very attractive price: $0.39 per page according to an article in Scientific American (but if all costs were included, ca. $2 per page according to JSTOR). When contacted, JSTOR declined to make the back issues of Florida Entomologist one of its projects but put FES in touch with the company that did its scanning.

Offshore Keyboarding Corporation, Barbados, quoted FES these prices for processing the 20,000 pages of Florida Entomologist back issues:

  • Scanning at 600 dpi and converting to TIFF 5.0 files (12¢ per page)
  • Indexing according to Elsevier's Effect ver. 4.0 “Exchange Format for Electronic Components and Texts” and generating TOC files (18¢ per page)
  • Applying optical character recognition, correcting to 99.95% accuracy, and generating RAW files (26¢ per page)
  • Converting halftones to JPG files (25¢ per shot)
  • Making CD-ROMs holding files for ca. 4,000 pages ($35 each)

From a preliminary analysis, FES estimated that $12,000 would be sufficient to process all back issues. In early 1998, it raised this amount as follows: two anonymous donors from industry, $4,000; UF Department of Entomology and Nematology, $4,000 (approved by faculty vote); UF Dean for Research in Agriculture and Natural Resources, $4,000. On 9 Mar. 1998, a purchase order was issued to Offshore Keyboarding. On 14 Jan 1999 the final CD was received; the total costs were $11,255, for 19,873 pages (57¢ per page).

The files received from Offshore Keyboarding were turned over to the Florida Center for Library Automation. FCLA wrote programs to produce browsable tables of contents for all issues and PDF files for all items. On 27 Apr 1999, FCLA made these freely accessible on the Web in the same digital-library interface that it was using for the full-text electronic versions of more than 600 Elsevier journals. Items in this set of back issues could then be retrieved by searching by “keyword” (words or phrases in Author, Title, Abstract, and Keyword fields) or by author or title.

In September 2004, FCLA significantly improved search access to the 1917 to 1994 articles by using the RAW files generated by optical character recognition to enable searches of the full text of the articles by any word or phrase, or Boolean combination thereof. FCLA also generated a single index for all issues (1917 to date), so that all articles were candidates for retrieval in any search.

Journal History

"The Florida Entomologist" (1920 - current) continues "The Florida Buggist", which ran from 1917 - 1920 (vols. 1-3).

Florida Buggist ISSN: 1930-4013
Florida Buggist Online ISSN: 2163-632X

Florida Entomologist Print ISSN: 0015-4040
Florida Entomologist Online ISSN: 1938-5102

All volumes of the Florida Buggist and Florida Entomologist are available through Florida OJ.

Principal Contact

Florida Entomological Society
PO Box 1007
Lutz, FL 33548-1007
Email: flaentsoc@gmail.com

Support Contact

Florida Virtual Campus
Email: help@flvc.org