Molecular Survey of Endosymbionts in Florida Populations of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its Parasitoids Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)

Jason M. Meyer, Marjorie A. Hoy

Abstract


A molecular survey of endosymbionts was conducted in Florida populations of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), and its parasitoids Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Using a high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we detected 3 eubacterial species each in D. citri (the primary symbiont Candidatus Carsonella rudii, a secondary symbiont related to Oxalobacter and Herbaspirillum species, and Wolbachia), and T. radiata (Caulobacter sp., Methylobacterium sp. and a bacterium in the family Alcaligenaceae), whereas only 1 species was identified in D. aligarhensis (Wolbachia). Each eubacterial symbiont of D. citri was detected in the eggs, which is indicative of transovarial transmission. However, none of the eubacterial symbionts of T. radiata were detected in the eggs, suggesting that they are only transient associates. Stable horizontal transfer of these eubacterial species likely has not occurred between the host and its parasitoids because each insect hosts a different complement of Eubacteria. For example, different strains of Wolbachia were detected in D. citri and D. aligarhensis, based on evidence from the 16S rRNA and wsp gene sequences. Also, the orf7 gene of the bacteriophage WO associated with Wolbachia was detected in D. citri but not in D. aligarhensis. No endosymbiotic Archaea, Helicosporidia, Microsporidia, Fungi, or Yeast-like symbionts were detected with PCR in these populations of D. citri or its parasitoids.

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