Seasonality and Phenology of the Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) of Mexico's Calakmul Region

Carmen Pozo, Armando Luis-Martínez, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Noemí Salas-Suárez, Aixchel Maya-Martínez, Isabel Vargas-Fernández, Andrew D. Warren

Abstract


The phenology of butterflies was analyzed in the Calakmul Region (CR) in the state of Campeche, México, over the course of 3 years. Altogether, 60,662 individuals were recorded, consisting of 359 species in 207 genera, 18 subfamilies, 5 families, and 2 superfamilies. Greatest species diversity was recorded during Oct and Nov. Monthly fluctuation in diversity was defined by rare species. Hesperiidae (135 species) and Nymphalidae (111 species) were the most diverse families, and showed the greatest variation with respect to distribution of species richness throughout the year. Papilionidae showed the greatest species richness during the dry season. Pieridae, Nymphalidae, and Lycaenidae showed peaks of greatest species richness and relative abundance during the rainy season. Results were compared to faunal studies of the Sierra de Atoyac de Álvarez, in the state of Guerrero, and of the Sierra de Manantlán, in Jalisco and Colima. Important similarities were observed among phenological patterns in the butterfly fauna of the 3 regions, especially between CR and Manantlán. The phenology of species with greater relative abundance was analyzed in relation to wingspan as a parameter of adult size. The small and medium-sized groups, taken together, showed variations in species richness. An analysis of species seasonality was conducted with NMDS, ANOSIM and SIMPER, in the program PRIMER 4.0. Differences among the composition of butterfly communities with respect to the seasons were found.

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