Videos from Low: Seismic Defenses of a Leafminer

Antispila nysaefoliella (LEPIDOPTERA: HELIOZELIDAE)

(Clicking on image will download an ".mp4" video file.)

Eulophid wasp searches on mine

VIDEO 1.Observations of two different Eulophid parasitoids searching on a mine of Cameraria hamadryadella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on white oak, Quercus alba at a field site 3 miles from study site in Clarke County, Virginia. In the first part of the video, the parasitoid is either Pnigalio sp. or Sympiesis sp.; and later, it is joined by a smaller parasitoid, Closterocerus sp. Both taxa of parasitoids also parasitize A. nysaefoliella.

Watch wasp and response of larva

VIDEO 2. There is an insect (at the tip of the arrow), which appears to be a parasitoid walking between mines. The parasitoid moves into a dark area of a mine where it is hard to see, but then reappears near the larva that is in line with the arrow. The larva begins to tick in response. The parasitoid moves onto the green surface of the leaf to inspect other mines.

Watch and listen closely

VIDEO 3. Several of the individuals are shown ticking, but one can be heard if you listen (and watch) very carefully. At about 10s, you can hear a slight ticking, scraping, sound. You may also notice that the ticking sounds and the behavioral movements of the larva at the red arrow are synchronized. Several other larvae also tick, including 2 larvae in mines at the lower left and 1 in a long mine near the center of the leaf.

Rattle behavior is very quick

VIDEO 4. The “rattling” larva is on the right side of the leaf at the red arrow. This behavior is rapid and occurs within a fraction of a second.

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