Molecular Assessment of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Pathway in Synchronized In Vitro Red Cell Cultures of American Native Grapes

Anthony Ananga, Stoyanka Krastanova, Safira Sutton, Stephen Leong, Violetka Colova (Tsolova)

Abstract


Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds that are responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. Because anthocyanins are the most important colorants in grapes, they have been widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. The study of the flavonoid boisynthetic pathway genes is critical for anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vitis viniferagrape. Little has been done to study the influence of these genes in muscadine grapes. Muscadines are extensively cultivated in Florida and the southeastern United States. Using in vitro syncronized cell cultures obtained from superepidermal cells of red berries of ‘Cynthiana’ and ‘Noble’ varieties, we examined the expression of 13 genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. By using gene specific primers in combination with a reliable normalization gene (Actin), we compared relative expression of the flavonoid biosynthetic genes between ‘Noble’ and ‘Cynthiana’. Our study revealed that there was no significant difference in the expression levels of these genes in the in vitro red cell cultures of both varieties. Among them, CHS2, ANS, DFR, PAL, GST4, CHI4, LDOX, GST5, CHS3, and UFGT showed more expression in ‘Noble’ than ‘Cynthiana’. This study shows that the genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway are expressed in the in vitro red cells as the cells multiply. This makes the study of red cells useful and validates their future use as nutraceuticals. It is important to note that this is the first attempt to elucidate the expression pattern of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes in synchronized in vitro red cell cultures of grapes.

Keywords


grape, Vitis, muscadine, flavonoids, anthocyanins, cell cultures

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Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.     ISSN 0886-7283