Normalizing in vitro development of sweet orange somatic embryos using semi-permeable membranes

Randall P. Niedz, Scott E. Hyndman, Eldridge T. Wynn, Michael G. Bausher


Development of citrus somatic embryos initiated from embryogenic callus is generally abnormal and results in abnormal morphologies. Normal shoots can be induced from these abnormal structures, and presumably arise by organogenesis rather than normal embryogenic development. Culturing young globular stage somatic embryos on semi-permeable cellulose acetate membranes resulted in normal, two-cotyledon, bipolar embryos-a morphology not observed when globular stage embryos were cultured on agar only. Plants were recovered from normalized somatic embryos by germination and subsequent transfer to soil.


somatic embryogenesis; semi-permeable membrane; cellulose acetate; glycerol; gel concentration; regenerated cellulose; citrus sinensis

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Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.     ISSN 0886-7283