Alternative fumigants applied with standard and virtually impermeable mulches for tomato

Salvadore J. Locascio, Donald W. Dickson

Abstract


Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown during 2001 to evaluate fumigant application methods with standard low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) mulches on fruit production and pest-pathogen control. Fumigant treatments were broadcast (BC) 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) + 35% chloropicrin (Pic), BC metam- Na, in-bed methyl bromide (MBr)-Pic (67-33%) and iodomethane (MI)-Pic (67-33%) and drip applied metam-Na in 2 and 3 drip lines. In-bed Pic was injected with BC 1,3-D. Pebulate was applied on beds with all treatments except MBr-Pic, MI-Pic, and the untreated control. Plants were 14% smaller with VIF mulch than with LDPE mulch. Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.) control was adequate with all fumigants except 1,3-D + 35% Pic, metam-Na applied BC, and with metam-Na applied with two drip lines. Mulch type had no effect on nutsedge counts. Nematode root-gall ratings were highest with the check and BC metam-Na, and lower with all other fu- migants. The incidence of Fusarium crown root was less than the check with all fumigants except BC applied metam- Na. Tomato total fruit yields with all fumigants were higher than with no treatment. Fruit yields were highest with BC 1,3-D with inbed Pic+ pebulate, in-bed MBr-Pic, MI-Pic, 1,3-D + 35% Pic + pebulate, and three drip lines applied metam-Na + pebulate. Fruit yields were significantly lower with BC 1,3- D + 35% Pic and BC metam-Na. Yields were higher with LDPE than with VIF mulch. In this study, neither yields or pest-pathogen control was enhanced with VIF as compared to that with standard LDPE mulch.

Keywords


lycopersicon esculentum; chloropicrin; 1,3-dichloropropene; fusarium wilt; methyl; bromide; metam-na; nutsedge; root-knot nematode

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Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.     ISSN 0886-7283