Potential applications of multiband spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting HLB infected orange trees

Ashish Mishra, Reza Ehsani, Davood Karimi, L. Gene Albrigo

Abstract


Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is a bacterial disease threatening Florida’s multi-billion dollar citrus industry. Currently, the best management practice to control the disease is to detect the infected tree and remove it as soon as possible as the infected tree can be the inoculum source resulting in further spread of the disease. Scouting and visual inspection for the disease symptoms is currently used by growers to identify HLB-infected trees. However, this method is very time consuming, subjective, and expensive. Therefore, the long-term goal of this research is to develop a fast screening technique that can assist citrus growers in detecting HLB-infected citrus trees. In this study, a rugged, low-cost, multi-band active optical sensor and hyperspectral imaging were used to identify HLB-infected trees from healthy trees. Analysis of the multi-band optical sensor data showed that due to the large variability in the data, it was not possible to discriminate the healthy trees from that of infected trees based only on a single measurement from a tree. However, using multiple measurements from a tree, it was possible to achieve high classification accuracy. With three measurements, k-nearest neighbors and support vector machines yielded classification errors of less than 5%. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio Index (SR), Modified Triangular Vegetation Index (MTVI-2), Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index (RDVI) and Structure Intensive Pigment Index (SIPI) are indices that were evaluated for healthy and HLB infected trees based on the optical sensor and hyperspectral imaging results. These vegetative indices showed potential to differentiate HLB trees from healthy trees with multi band optical sensor as well as hyperspectral camera. The results demonstrate the potential of a multi-band active optical sensor and hyperspectral camera for detecting HLB-infected citrus trees under field conditions.


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Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.     ISSN 0886-7283