Decline of Parnassius apollo in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Central Spain (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

J. F. Sánchez-R., A. Baz


This work describes the distribution, density, phenology and habitat (altitude range and type of vegetation) of Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus) in the Sierra de Guadarrama of Central Spain. Its present state of conservation in the area is analyzed and compared to that of twenty years ago.


Asia; Campanulaceae; conservation; Compositae; Crassulaceae; decline; density; distribution; endangered species; Europe; Fabaceae; Fagaceae; France; habitats; hostplants; Iberian Peninsula; Leguminosae; phenology; Pinaceae; Plumbaginaceae; Poland; population biology; relict species; Sweden

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