Toxicity of Leaf and Stem Extracts to Tylenchorhynchus dubius

P. M. Miner, N. C. Turner, H. Tomlinson

Abstract


Plant extracts, made by grinding 2 g of fresh tissue in 5 ml of water, were toxic to Tylenchorhynchus dubius and Hoplolaimus spp. Such extracts from leaves and stems of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were most toxic; those from leaves of corn (Zea mays L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiense L.) were less toxic; and extracts of bean roots were nontoxic. Nematode movement slowed markedly within 1 hr in tobacco leaf extract, and within 4 hr in bean leaf extract; both extracts completely inactivated or killed 95% of the nematodes in 24 hr. Heating leaf extract 10 min at 80 C eliminated toxicity. Absorption of fusicoccin, a phytotoxin produced by Fusicoccum amygdali Del., increased the toxicity of tomato leaf extracts, whereas water extracts of acetone-extracted powder preparations of leaves were about 15-fold more toxic than water extracts of fresh tissue. Addition of homogenized leaves of bean, tobacco and tomato to soil significantly reduced nematode populations within 3 days.

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