Influence of Chilling and Freezing Temperatures on Infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla
Egg masses and second-stage larvae of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla in soil were exposed to temperatures ranging from 20 to -8 C. Temperature was lowered in 2-day intervals to 16, 12, 8, 4, 0, -4, and -8 C, and the nematodes remained at 4, 0, -4, or -8 C for 18, 14, 10, or 6 days, respectively. Unhatched larvae of both species were more resistant to low temperatures than were embryonic stages. Within the eggs of M. incognito, 7.5% of embryos and 48% of larval stages survived 14 days at 0 C, whereas 9% of embryos and 90% of larval stages in the eggs of M. hapla survived 10 days at -4 C. Second-stage larvae of both species remained infective in sol.1 at 4 or 0 C, but were injured at -4 and -8 C. Infectivily of these larvae was lower in saturated soil than in soil at 51 cm moisture tension at all temperatures. Key Words: Cold tolerance, survival, eggs, second-stage larvae, root-knot nematode.