Carbamate and Organophosphorus Nematicides: Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and Effects on Dispersal

D. J. Pree, J. L. Townshend, D. E. Archibald

Abstract


The sensitivities of acetylcholinesterases (ACHE) from the fungus-feeder Aphelenchus avenae and the plant-parasitic species Helicotylenchus dihystera and Pratylenchus penetrans and the housefly, Musca domestica, were compared using a radiometric assay which utilized H³ acetylcholine as a substrate. Nematode ACHE were generally less sensitive to inhibition by organophosphorns and carbamate pesticides than were ACHE from the housefly. ACHE from the plant-parasitic species and A. avenae were generally similar in sensitivity. In soil, carbamates were more toxic than the organophosphorus pesticides to A. avenae. All pesticides tested affected nematode movement, but fenamiphos was more inhibitory than others. The effects on dispersal of nematodes may be an important mechanism in control by some nematicides. Key words: acetylcholinesterase, Aphelenchus avenae, carbamate, Helicotylenchus dihystera, nematicide, organophosphorus, Pratylenchus penetrans, radiometric, repellent.

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