Association of Verticillium chlamydosporium and Paecilomyces lilacinus with Root-knot Nematode Infested Soil

T. Gaspard, B. A. Jaffee, H. Ferris


Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita and the nematophagous fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium, were determined in 20 northern California tomato fields over two growing seasons. Paecilomyces lilacinus was isolated from three fields, V. chlamydosporium was isolated from one field, and both fungi were isolated from 12 fields. Verticillium chlamydosporium numbers were positively correlated with numbers of M. incognita and P. lilacinus. Paecilomyces lilacinus numbers were positively correlated with V. chlamydosporium numbers, but they did not correlate with M. incognita numbers. The correlation coefficients were low (R 0.5) but significant (P 0.05). All P. lilacinus and V. chlamydosporium field isolates parasitized M. incognita eggs in vitro. In a greenhouse study, numbers of V. chlamydosporium and P. lilacinus increased more in soils with M. incognita-infected tomato plants than in soil with uninfected tomato plants. After 10 weeks, the Pf/ Pi of second-stage juveniles in soils infested with P. lilacinus, V. chlamydosporium, and M. incognita was 47.1 to 295.6. The results suggest V. chlamydosporium and P. lilacinus are not effectively suppressing populations of M. incognita in California tomato fields. Key words: biological control, Lycopersicon esculentum, Meloidogyne incognita, Paecilomyces lilacinus, tomato, Verticillium chlamydosporium.

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