Biological Control of Soil Pests by Mixed Application of Entomopathogenic and Fungivorous Nematodes

N. Ishibashi, D-R. Choi


In greenhouse experiments, massive application of the fungivorous nematode, Aphelenchus avenae, in summer at 26-33 C (1 x l0[sup5] nematodes/500 cm³ autoclaved soil) or in autumn at 18-23 C (5 x 10[sup4] nematodes/500 cm³ autoclaved soil) suppressed pre-emergence damping-off of cucumber seedlings due to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 by 67% or 87%, respectively. Application of 2 x l0[sup5] A. avenae to sterilized soil infested with R. solani caused leafminer-like symptom on the cotyledons, which did not occur in mixed inoculations with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. When 1 x 10[sup6] A. avenae were applied 3 days before inoculation with 100 Meloidogyne incognita juveniles, gall numbers on tomato roots were reduced to 50% of controls. Gall numbers also were suppressed by S. carpocapsae (str. All). Reduction in gall numbers was no greater with mixed application of A. avenae and S. carpocapsae than with application of single species, even though twice the number of nematodes were added in the former case. These nematodes were positively attracted to tomato root tips. Aphelenchus avenae suppressed infection of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum, but not the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, by S. carpocapsae. Key words: Aphelenchus avenae, biological control, Meloidogyne incognita, Rhizoctonia solani, Steinernema carpocapsae.

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