Efficacy of Ethoprop on Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi and Enhanced Biodegradation in Soil
Responses of egg masses, free eggs, and second-stage juveniles (J2) ofMeloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi to ethoprop were evaluated. The results indicated that J2 were the most sensitive, followed by free eggs and egg masses. In general, M. chitwoodi was more susceptible to ethoprop than M. hapla. Ethoprop at 7.2 [mu]g a.i./g soil protected tomato roots from upward migrating M. chitwoodi for 5 weeks. The zone of protection was extended to 10 and 20 cm below the root zone when 3.6 and 7.2 cm water were applied over 8 days. Ethoprop at 1.8, 3.6, and 7.2 [mu]g a.i./g soil degraded faster and killed fewer M. chitwoodi J2 in potato field soil previously exposed to ethoprop than in unexposed soil or sterilized exposed soil. The enhanced biodegradation property of the exposed soil lasted 17 months after the last application of ethoprop. The limited downward movement of ethoprop in the soil, migration of M. chitwoodi J2 into the treated zone, presence of resistant life stage(s) at the time of application, and loss of efficacy due to enhanced biodegradation may have a significant effect on the performance of ethoprop. Key words: biodegradation, Columbia root-knot nematode, ethoprop, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, Meloidogyne hapla, migration, nematicide, nematode, northern root-knot nematode, potato, Solanum tuberosum.