Aspects of Biology and Development of Xiphinema americanum and Related Species

J. M. Halbrendt, D. J. F. Brown


Identification of Xiphinema americanum-group nematodes is based on relatively subtle morphological and morphometric differences, many of which overlap. The significance and importance of these separations cannot be assessed without a basic understanding of the biological differences between species. Currently, information is accumulating on Xiphinema biology, development, and genetics that will help to confirm or refute the current systematics of species in this group. Recently, it was demonstrated that Xiphinema species pass through either three or four juvenile stages before becoming adults. This new and fundamental information divides the genus and the X. americanum group into subgroups based on their developmental evolution and provides new insight into the taxonomy and systematic positions of the species. Key words: biology, development, morphology, morphometric, nematode, species, virus-vector, Xiphinema americanum, Xiphinema spp.

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