The Future of Nematology: Integration of New and Improved Management Strategies

Philip A. Roberts

Abstract


The potential for managing plant-parasitic nenlatodes by combining two or more control strategies in an integrated program is examined. Advantages of this approach include the use of partially effective strategies and protection of highly effective ones vulnerable from nematode adaptation or environmental risk. Strategies can be combined sequentially from season to season or applied simultaneously. Programs that have several strategies available but that are limited in the true integration of control components are used as examples of current management procedures and the potential for their improvement. These include potato cyst nematodes in northern Europe, soybean cyst nematode in North Carolina, and root-knot nematodes on vegetable and field crops in California. A simplified model of the impact of component strategies on the nematode damage function indicates the potential for combining control measures with different efficacies to give acceptable nematode population reduction and crop protection. The likelihood for additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects from combining strategies is considered with respect to the biological target and component compatibility. Key words: crop loss, cyst nematode, damage function, efficacy, Globodera pallida, G. rostochiensis, Heterodera glycines, integrated pest management, Meloidogyne spp., population density, root-knot nematode.

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