Disinfection Alternatives for Control of Ditylenchus dipsaci in Garlic Seed Cloves

P. A. Roberts, W. C. Matthews

Abstract


Hot-water dips with and without the additives abamectin and sodium hypochlorite were evaluated for control of Ditylenchus dipsaci infection of garlic seed cloves. All treatments were compared to hot water-formalin clove dip disinfection and to nontreated infected controls for garlic emergence, midseason infection, bulb damage, and yield at harvest in field plots in 12 experiments. Hot-water treatments without additives only partially controlled D. dipsaci when a warming presoak dip (38 C) of 30, 45, or 60 minutes' duration was followed by a hot-water dip (49 C) of 15-30 minutes' duration. Exposure to 49 C for 30 minutes caused slight retardation of garlic emergence, although normal stand was established. Abamectin at 10-20 ppm as the 20-minute hot dip (49 C) or as a 20-minute cool dip (18 C) following a 20-minute hot-water dip and sodium hypochlorite at 1.052-1.313% aqueous solution as the 20-minute hot dip were highly effective in controlling D. dipsaci and were noninjurious to garlic seed cloves. None of these treatments was as effective as a hot water-formalin dip and were noneradicative, but showed high efficacy on heavily infected seed cloves relative to nontreated controls. Abamectin was most effective as a cool dip. These abamectin cool-dip (following hot-water dip) and sodium hypochlorite hot-dip treatments can be considered as effective alternatives to replace formalin as a dip additive for control of clove-borne D. dipsaci. Sodium hypochlorite was less effective as the cool dip, and at concentrations of 1.75-2.63% was phytotoxic to garlic. Key words: abamectin, Allium sativum, Ditylenchus dipsaci, formaldehyde, garlic, hot-water dip, seed-borne infection, sodium hypochlorite, stem nematode.

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