FMRFamide-like Immunoactivity in Heterodera glycines (Nemata: Tylenchida)

E. P. Masler, E. S. Kovaleva, S. Sardanelli


Material antigenically related to the neuromodulatory peptide FMRFamide was detected and examined in preparations of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and in the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus redivivus. FMRFamide-related peptides were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Specific activities were remarkably similar among all of the vermiform members of the three species. FMRFamide-related peptide immunoactivity was present in both sexes and all stages of H. glycines examined. The highest specific activity was present in second-stage juveniles and in males, and the lowest in white and yellow females. Total FMRFamide-related peptide level per individual was highest in brown females, with 90% of the activity associated with the eggs. Peptide levels in these eggs and in second-stage juveniles were comparable and increased in adults, especially in females. Chromatographic analysis of FMRFamide-related peptide preparations from H. glycines juveniles, C. elegans, and P. redivivus revealed distinct qualitative differences between the infective plant parasite and the free-living nematodes.


caenorhabditis elegans; elisa; farp; female aging; fmrfamide; heterodera glycines; juvenile development; nematode; panagrellus redivivus; peptide; rp-hplc; soybean cyst nematode

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