Diversity of Meloidogyne spp. on Musa in Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana

E. T. Cofcewicz, R. M. D. G. Carneiro, O. Randig, C. Chabrier, P. Queneherve

Abstract


Ninety-six isolates of Meloidogyne species collected from banana fields from Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana, were examined using esterase (Est) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) phenotypes. Adult females identified as M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. cruciani, M. hispanica, and Meloidogyne sp. showed species-specific phenotypes only for the esterase enzymes. Intraspecific variability among isolates of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica was detected using Est and Mdh. Perineal patterns were used as a complementary tool together with enzyme characterization and were essential for checking the morphological consistency of the identification. The major species of M. arenaria and M. incognita were detected at 61.9% and 34.3% of the total number of isolates, respectively, and the other minor species at 3.8%. The mixed Meloidogyne species were detected in 45.1% of the samples. Genetic analysis was conducted using RAPD markers, which alone or in combination provided reliable polymorphisms both between and within species. RAPD analysis of the data resulted in clustering of species and isolates congruent with esterase phenotype characterization. The intraspecific variability in M. incognita and in M. arenaria represented 14.9% and 61.6% of the amplified polymorphic fragments, respectively. This high level of variation in M. arenaria isolates may indicate multiple origins for populations classified as M. arenaria or more than one species inside the same group, but more detailed morphological and DNA studies will be necessary to test this hypothesis.

Keywords


banana; biochemical identification; electrophoresis; meloidogyne spp.; musa; rapd

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