Nematicidal and Propagation Activities of Thyme Red and White Oil Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae)
The toxic and propagation effects on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus of 28 Thymus vulgaris red oil and white oil compounds were examined using direct contact and cotton ball bioassays. Results were compared with those of the trunk-injection nematicides emmamectin benzoate, levamisol hydrochloride and morantel tartrate. In direct contact bioassays, geraniol (LC50, 0.47 mg/ml) was the most toxic compound, followed by thymol (1.08 mg/ml), carvacrol (1.23 mg/ml) and terpinen-4-ol (2.61 mg/ml). In cotton ball tests with 20 inactive compounds at 2 mg/cotton ball, p-cymene significantly inhibited propagation (propagation ratio [PR] 8), compared with the castor oil-ethanol-treated control (PR 56). Propagation stimulation was observed with (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (+)-ledene, (+)- and (-)-limonene, linalool oxide, ß-myrcene, (-)-α-phellandrene, (+)-α-pinene and y-terpinene (PR 63-100). The other 10 compounds exhibited low to moderate levels of propagation inhibition (PR 36-56). At 0.1 æg/cotton ball, emmamectin benzoate and morantel tartrate exhibited complete suppression of propagation, whereas a very low level of propagation inhibition was obtained from levamisol hydrochloride (PR 6). In conclusion, propagation-stimulating compounds can exist in plants in addition to nematicidal compounds, and careful use of plant preparations containing high quantities of these compounds is mandatory.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; pine wood nematode; botanical nematicide; propagation stimulation; propagation inhibition; essential oil; Thymus vulgaris.