Meloidogyne polycephannulata n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing carrot in Brazil

Joao M. Charchar, Jonathan D. Eisenback, Jairo V. Vieira, Maria Esther de N. Fonseca-Boiteux, Leonardo S. Boiteux

Abstract


Meloidogyne polycephannulata n. sp. is described from specimens collected from an area cultivated with carrot cv. Brasilia, in the city of Rio Paranaiba, in the region of Alto Paranaiba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The perineal pattern of the female is circular to ovoid with a high dorsal arch that has widely spaced, coarse annulations. The lateral field may have a deep furrow separating the dorsal and ventral arches. The medial lips are short and wide, whereas the lateral lips are large and triangular. The female stylet is 15-16 µm long with wide knobs, distinctly divided by an indentation in the center. Its tip is slightly curved dorsally. The excretory pore opens 34-65 µm from the anterior end. Females retain eggs and second-stage juveniles in their body cavity, similar to that of the cyst-forming nematodes. Males are 1.3-1.7 mm long and have a high head cap that is rounded and slopes posteriorly. The labial disc is fused to the medial lips. The head region has several irregular annulations that are similar in appearance to the first or second body annules that are likewise irregular, making the head region appear to be extremely large. The stylet of the male is 21-24 µm long; it is slender, and has small, rounded knobs, that are distinctly indented medially and appear heart-shaped. The shaft has several tiny projections throughout its length. Mean second-stage juvenile length is 411.7 µm. The juvenile head cap is elevated, the medial lips are small, and the lateral lips are elongate to triangular-shaped. The head region has several short, incomplete and irregular transverse annulations. The juvenile stylet is 14-23 µm long with small, rounded, and sloping knobs. The thin tail ends with a short hyaline portion that is variable in size (16-26 µm) and with a small, rounded tip. Isozyme profiles of esterases from Meloidogyne javanica show 3 strong bands (SB) at Rm 46, 59, and 66; profiles of M. polycephannulata n. sp. show a SB at Rm 47 and a weak band (WB) at Rm 52; M. petuniae has two SB at Rm 44 and 53; M. phaseoli has a SB at 53, 58, and 64 Rm; M. brasilensis has three SB at Rm 40, 58, and 66 and a WB at Rm 71; M. pisi has a SB at Rm 40, 60, and 64 and two WB at 46 and 50 Rm. Data from sequencing the 18S rDNA region of M. polycephannulata n. sp. confirms that it is different from M. arabicida, M. arenaria, M. ethiopica, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. paranaensis, and M. thailandica. Sequence identity among these eight species ranged between 85 to 93.4%. Meloidogyne polycephannulata n. sp. reproduces very well on carrot and tomato; poorly on pepper; and not at all on cotton, peanut, tobacco, watermelon, and sweet corn.

Keywords


Daucus carotae; description; host range; Meloidogyne brasilensis; M. javanica; M. petuniae; M. phaseoli; M. pisi; morphology; morphometrics; scanning electron microscopy; taxonomy

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