Management of Heterodera glycines by Cropping and Cultural Practices

D. P. Schmitt

Abstract


Heterodera glycines was identified in North Carolina in 1954, although symptoms of the disease were noted in the state at least 8 years earlier. Crop rotation experiments designed to develop management systems were initiated in 1956. Two or more years in production of a nonhost crop resulted in decreases of the nematode to low or undetectable levels with acceptable subsequent yields of soybean (Glycine max). Because of almost complete dependence on resistant cultivars and (or) nematicides for nematode control, crop rotation experiments were not conducted from 1962 to 1980. Research on control of H. glycines, beginning in 1981, emphasized biological and ecological aspects of the nematode in order to determine cropping systems that restrict the nematode to nondamaging levels. Mortality during embryogenesis was high at temperatures above 30 C. Hatching of eggs occurs readily in May and June. Postinfection development takes 2-3 weeks at weekly mean temperatures of 22-29 C and is slow above and below those temperatures. Egg production is high during the late growing season. Some cultural practices such as planting early maturing cultivars in mid-to-late June and rotation with a nonhost effectively keeps populations at low levels. Key words: crop rotation, cropping system, Glycine max, Heterodera glycines, soybean, soybean cyst nematode.

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