Effects of Tropical Rotation Crops on Meloidogyne arenaria Population Densities and Vegetable Yields in Microplots

R. McSorley, D. W. Dickson, J. A. de Brito, T. E. Hewlett, J. J. Frederick

Abstract


The effects of 12 summer crop rotation treatments on population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and on yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in microplots. The crop sequence was: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991 ; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The 12 rotation treatments were castor (Ricinus communis), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis), fallow, hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), soybean (Glycine max), horsebean (Canavalia ensiformis), sesame (Sesamum indicum), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Compared to peanut, the first eight rotation treatments resulted in lower (P = 0.05) numbers of M. arenaria juveniles on most sampling dates. Soybean, horsebean, and sesame rotations were less effective in suppressing nematodes. Yield of squash was greater (P = 0.05) following castor, cotton, velvetbean, and crotalaria than following peanut. Compared to the peanut rotation, yield of eggplant was enhanced (P = 0.10) following castor, crotalaria, hairy indigo, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass. Several of these rotation crops may provide a means for depressing M. arenaria population densities on a short-term basis to enhance yields in a subsequent susceptible vegetable crop. Key words: Aeschynomene americanum, Arachis hypogaea, Canavalia ensiformis, cropping systems, Crotalaria spectabilis, Cucurbita pepo, fallow, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum, Indigofera hirsuta, Meloidogyne arenaria, Mucuna deeringiana, nematode, nematode management, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Solanum melongena, Sorghum bicolor, sustainable agriculture.

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