Effects of Etomopathiogenic Nematodes on Meloidogyne javanica on Tomatoes and Soybeans

Declan J. Fallon, Harry K. Kaya, Randy Gaugler, Brent S. Sipes

Abstract


Two Hawaiian isolates of Steinernema feltiae MG-14 and Heterohabditis indica MG-13, a French isolate of S. feltiae SN, and a Texan isolate of S. riobrave TX were tested for their efficacy against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, in the laboratory and greenhouse. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of treatment application time and dose on M. javanica penetration in soybean, and egg production and plant development in tomato. Two experiments conducted to assess the effects of entomopathogenic nematode application time on M. javanica penetration demonstrated that a single application of 10[sup4] S. feltiae MG-14 or SN infective juveniles per 100 cm³ of sterile soil, together with 500 (MG-14) or 1,500 (SN) second-stage juveniles of M. javanica, reduced root penetration 3 days after M. javanica inoculation compared to that of a water treatment. Entomopathogenic nematode infective juveniles applied to assess the effects on M. javanica egg production did not demonstrate a significant reduction compared to that of the water control treatment. There was no dose response effect by Steinernema spp. On M. javanica root penetration or egg production. Steinernema spp. did not affect the growth or development of M. javanica-infected plants, but H. indica MG-13-treated plants had lower biomass than untreated plants infected with M. javanica. Infective juveniles of S. riobrave TX, S. feltiae SN, and MG-14 but not those of H. indica MG-13 were found inside root cortical tissues of M. javanica-infected plants. Entomopathogenic nematode antagonism to M. javanica on soybean or tomato was insufficient in the present study to provide a consistent level of nematode suppression at the concentrations of infective juveniles applied.

Keywords


behavior; heterorhabditis; meloidogyne javanica; root penetration; steinernema; suppression

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