Horizontal Transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus between Sexes of Monochamus alternatus

Katsumi Togashi, Yoh Arakawa


Four experiments were conducted using nematode-infested and nematode-free adults of the cerambycid beetle, Monochamus alternatus, to determine horizontal transmission pathways of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. When nematode-infested beetles of one sex and nematode-free beetles of the opposite sex were paired in containers for 48 or 72 hours, the number of nematodes carried by nematode-free beetles tended to increase with increased number of nematodes carried by nematode-infested beetles. The nematodes acquired by "nematode-free" beetles could be transmitted to pine. A female beetle that received 13 nematodes from a male transmitted one nematode to a Pinus densiflora bolt via an oviposition wound. When the nematode-infested and nematode-free beetles were observed continuously, it was observed that the number of nematodes carried by nematode-free beetles at the end of the first sexual mounting increased as the number of nematodes carried by nematode-infested beetles just before mounting increased. The number of nematodes transferred to nematode-free beetles was positively related to duration time of mounting. There was no difference in transmission efficacy between male-to-female transmission and female-to-male transmission. The horizontal transmission pathways are discussed relative to the persistence of B. xylophilus in resistant pine forests and the control of pine wilt disease.


aphelenchoididae; bursaphelenchus xylophilus; cerambycidae; horizontal transmission; monochamus alternatus; mounting; multiple infection; nematode; vector; virulence

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