Three-Dimensional Ultrastructural Karyotype Analysis from the Meiotic Parthenogenetic Nematode Heterodera betulae

J. Merlin, A. Goldstein, P. Goldstein


Meiotic chromosome structure and function are described in the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera betulae. Twelve synaptonemal complexes (SCs) were reconstructed from pachytene nuclei; therefore, n=12 is predicted for this species. Morphologically distinct sex chromosomes were not observed. Only one end of the SC is attached to the nuclear envelope, and there is no bouquet arrangement at pachytene. The structure of the SC in this meiotic parthenogenetic nematode was different than in other nematodes that reproduce via amphimixis; a striated central element with transverse filaments was not observed. Multiple SCs, or polycomplexes, were present in the nucleus. Recombination nodules were not observed. The centrioles were comprised of nine doublet microtubules connected by a ring, which is a distinct modification from the typical nine triplet microtubules without any interconnecting structure.


chromosome; cyst nematode; cytogenetics; heterodera betulae; recombination nodules; synaptonemal complex

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