Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematode Concentration on Survival during Cryopreservation in Liquid Nitrogen

Cheng Bai, David I. Shapiro-Ilan, Randy Gaugler, Shuxia Yi


Entomopathogenic nematodes are used for biological control of insect pests. A method for improved cryopreservation of infective juvenile stage nematodes has been developed using Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Optimum survival for both species was achieved with 12,000 infective juveniles/ml in glycerol and 7,500/ml in Ringer's solution. For S. carpocapsae, maximum survival also was observed with 60,000 infective juveniles/ml in glycerol and 25,000/ml in Ringer's solution. These concentrations resulted in 100% post-cryopreservation survival of S. carpocapsae and 100% retention of original virulence to Galleria mellonella larvae. This is the first report of achieving 100% survival of an entomopathogenic nematode after preservation in liquid nitrogen. Maximum survival of H. bacteriophora following cryopreservation was 87%.


concentration; cryobiology; cryopreservation; heterorhabditis bacteriophora; steinernema carpocapsae; survival

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