Chemical-Mediated Toxicity of N-Viro Soil to Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

I. A. Zasada, M. Tenuta

Abstract


N-Viro Soil (NVS) is an alkaline-stabilized municipal biosolid that has been shown to lower population densities and reduce egg hatch of Heterodera glycines and other plant-parasitic nematodes; but the mechanism(s) of nematode suppression of this soil amendment are unknown. This study sought to identify NVS-mediated changes in soil chemical properties and their impact upon H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita mortality. N-Viro Soil was applied to sand in laboratory assays at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% dry w/w with a nonamended treatment as a control. Nematode mortality and changes in sand-assay chemical properties were determined 24 hours after incubation. Calculated lethal concentration (LC[sub9][sub0]) values were 1.4% w/w NVS for second-stage juveniles of both nematode species and 2.6 and 3.0% w/w NVS for eggs of M. incognita and H. glycines, respectively. Increasing rates of NVS were strongly correlated (r² = 0.84) with higher sand solution pH levels. Sand solution pH levels and, to a lesser extent, the production of ammonia appeared to be the inorganic chemical-mediated factors responsible for killing plant-parasitic nematodes following amendment with NVS.

Keywords


amendment; ammonia; biosolid; heterodera glycines; meloidogyne incognita; nematodes; ph

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