Mortality and behavior in Heterodera glycines juveniles following exposure to isothiocyanate compounds

Nathan E. Schroeder, Ann E. MacGuidwin

Abstract


For this report, we examined the toxic effects of three plant-derived isothiocyanate compounds on second-stage juveniles ( J2) of Heterodera glycines. We found significant differences among compounds in the concentration required to affect nematodes, according to mortality and behavioral measurements. The concentrations required to affect behavior were significantly lower than those required for mortality. Both mortality and behavioral measurements were used to investigate whether nematodes in a quiescent state display decreased sensitivity to isothiocyanates compared with actively moving nematodes. Mortality measurements revealed that quiescent nematodes were significantly less sensitive to isothiocyanates than active nematodes. All behavioral measurements following exposure to benzyl- and phenyl isothiocyanate showed significant differences in sensitivity between quiescent and active nematodes. However, significant differences between quiescent and active nematodes were observed in only one of the five behavioral measurements following exposure to allyl isothiocyanate. These results expand the list of plantderived compounds toxic to H. glycines and illustrate the impact of behavioral quiescence on nematode sensitivity to exogenous toxins.

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