Soil Temperature Effects on the Interaction of Grape Rootstocks and Plant-parasitic Nematodes

H. Ferris, L. Zheng, M. A. Walker


Resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in commonly used resistant grape rootstocks is slightly compromised at soil temperatures above 278C. Newly released UCD-GRN series rootstocks, which have broad nematode resistance, exhibit trace infections by Meloidogyne spp. at elevated temperature. Pathotypes of M. incognita and M. arenaria that are virulent on ‘Harmony’ rootstock, as well as M. incognita Race 3, which is avirulent on ‘Harmony’, failed to produce egg masses on the UCD-GRN series rootstocks and other resistant selections at 248C. At 278C and above, there was increased nematode galling and egg mass production; at 308C, egg mass production levels of M. incognita Race 3 on ‘Harmony’ were up to 12% of that on susceptible ‘Colombard’ while reproduction of the virulent pathotypes on the UCD-GRN series was less than 5% of that on ‘Colombard’. Resistance of several of the parental genotypes of the UCD-GRN rootstock series was slightly compromised at soil temperatures of 308C and above; however, others maintained their resistance to even the virulent M. arenaria pathotype A at high temperatures. Effects of high temperature on resistance to Xiphinema index could not be assessed because of temperature sensitivity of the nematodes while resistance to Mesocriconema xenoplax was not compromised at high soil temperature. Resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in the UCD-GRN series rootstocks was not compromised when plants and nematodes were subjected to cyclical high and low temperature conditions, indicating that once initiated, the resistance mechanism is not reversed.

Full Text: