A re-evaluation of the geographic distribution of quarantine nematodes reported in Spain

A. Bello, L. Robertson, M. A. Diez-Rojo, M. Arias

Abstract


The lists of plant parasitic nematodes which are regulated by the European Union (EU Directive 2000 and/or the EPPO quarantine lists) contain 16 species. Seven of these species, Ditylenchus dipsaci, Globodera pallida, G. rostochiensis, Xiphinema rivesi (Xiphinema americanum group), Ditylenchus destructor, Nacobbus sp. and Xiphinema americanum have been reported in Spain. A re-examination of the voucher specimens concerning these reports confirmed that only Ditylenchus dipsaci, Globodera pallida, G. rostochiensis and Xiphinema rivesi occur in Spain. The reports of Ditylenchus destructor, Nacobbus sp. and Xiphinema americanum were not validated and are to be considered as erroneonus. The remaining quarantine nematodes on the lists, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Heterodera glycines, Hirschmanniella spp. (other than H. gracilis), Longidorus diadecturus, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, M. fallax, Radopholus similis (syn. R. citrophillus), Xiphinema bricolense, and X. californicum have not so far been detected in Spain. The necessity of extensive surveys to delimit the spread of the regulated nematodes occurring in the country and to detect the introduction of exotic quarantine nematodes from abroad is highlighted.

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