Scientific Note: Functional morphology of masquerading larva of Ceratonyx satanaria with notes on horned spanworm, Nematocampa resistaria (Geometridae: Ennominae).

A. Sourakov, M. Stubina


Morphological drawings and photographs are provided illustrating the unusual larval morphology, featuring long cervical horns or tubercles, of the geometrid moth Ceratonyx satanaria Guenée. In addition photographs of Nematocampa resistaria (Herrich-Schäffer) larvae, commonly known as a "horned spanworm" for its long abdominal tubercles, are also provided. The possible function of cervical horns is discussed in the context of predator-prey interactions. A survey of available photographs of geometrid larvae worldwide revealed cervical horns only in the genera Ceratonyx (Ennominae: Nacophorini) and in two Australian species of Geometridae: Plesanemma fucata (F&R 1875) (Ennominae: Nacophorini) and Parepisparis lutosaria (F. & R) (Oenochrominae).


anti-predator defenses; mimicry; camouflage; crypsis

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