Juvenile stages of Ithomiinae: overview and systematics (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

K. S. Brown Jr., A. V. L. Freitas

Abstract


Larvae and pupae are illustrated and described for 66 species in 40 of the 53 genera of Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae); eggs are shown for 60 species in 43 genera. With the use of 60 polarized characters drawn from these stages, a preliminary phylogeny is presented for 51 species in 41 genera, and compared with the genus-level phylogenies based on adults only (concepts of Fox and D'Almeida) and based on a sum of 138 new adult and juvenile characters (170 derived states). Two new genera are described: Ollantaya Brown & Freitas n. gen. (Type-species Ithomia canilla Hewitson) and Talamancana Haber, Brown & Freitas n. gen. (Type-species Dircenna lonera Butler & Druce).

Keywords


Apocynaceae; Bolivia; Brazil; characters; chemical preadaptation; coevolution; Colombia; colonization; Danainae; Dircennini; Ecuador; eggs; El Salvador; Gesneriaceae; Godyridini; Heliconiini; hostplants; Ithomiinae; Ithomiini; juveniles; larvae; Mechanitini; Melinaeini; Mesoamerica; Mexico; Napeogenini; Neotropical; Oleriini; Ollantaya n gen; Panama; Peru; phylogeny; pupae; Solanaceae; South America; Talamancana n gen; taxonomy; Tellervini; Tithoreini; Trinidad; Venezuela

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