Wing decoupling in hovering flight of swallowtail butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

D. L. Grodnitsky, R. Dudley, L. Gilbert


Wing uncoupling during hovering flight is described in Papilionidae, with Parides neophilus (Geyer), from Trinidad, as a particular example. Energy expenditures and predation dangers for hovering butterflies are also discussed.


behavior; Eriocraniidae; flight; Heliconiinae; Heliconius; Hepialidae; Hesperiidae; Ithomiinae; Lycaenidae; Malvaceae; Mechanitis; Melitaeinae; Micropterigidae; morphology; Musaceae; Nymphalidae; Papilio; Papilionidae; Papilioninae; Parides; Pieridae; Riodinidae; Verbenaceae

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