Bicyclus and Hallelesis: their immature stages and taxonomic relationships (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

A. Sourakov, T. C. Emmel

Abstract


Immature stages of the satyrine butterflies Bicyclus safitza (Westwood), B. madetes (Hewitson), B. vulgaris (Butler), B. sanaos (Hewitson), B. sandace (Hewitson), and Hallelesis halyma (Fabricius), from Ghana, West Africa, are illustrated and compared. The divergence of the genus Hallelesis from members of Bicyclus, to which it is closely related, is supported by the appearance of its immatures. Comparison of the morphology of the above species with another member of the tribe Mycalesini (the genus Henotesia), as well as with African members of tribes Ypthimini and Maelanitini, shows an increase in size of the third stemmata from primitive to advanced Satyrinae. Contrary to what is widely statedin the literature, some satyrine larvae do not have enlarged third stemmata.

Keywords


Africa; Apaturinae; Calisto; Cercyonis; eggs; Ethiopian; Euptychia; Ghana; hostplants; Henotesia; larvae; Maniolini; Melanitini; Melanitis; morphology; Mycalesini; Neotropical; New World; pupae; South Africa; Strabena; taxonomy; Ypthima; Zingiberaceae

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